Communiqués de presse

17th February 2020

ivory_picBonn, 14 February 2020 – Sales of Fairtrade certified cocoa from Côte d’Ivoire in the fourth quarter of 2019 increased farmers’ earnings by approximately $15.1 million USD (€13.8 million) compared to non-Fairtrade cocoa, according to preliminary figures released by Fairtrade International.
The higher earnings are due to the difference between the guaranteed Fairtrade Minimum Price and the current Ivorian government-set cocoa price. Fairtrade increased its Minimum Price for cocoa by 20 percent to $2,400 per tonne at FOB (point of export), effective 1 October 2019. This means that Fairtrade certified cooperatives in Côte d’Ivoire are currently receiving almost $236 more per tonne on top of the government-set FOB price.
More than 140 Ivorian cocoa cooperatives sold approximately 64,000 tonnes on Fairtrade terms from October through December 2019, according to available trader reports. The cooperatives are now distributing the earnings, including the full amount of the difference between the Fairtrade and government prices, to their farmer members as required by the Fairtrade Standards. This effectively raises the farm gate price that Fairtrade farmers receive by 17 percent. Payments to cooperatives and to farmers are being audited by Fairtrade’s independent certifier, FLOCERT.
“I’m very happy,” said Ettien N’Guessan, who has been a cocoa farmer for more than 40 years. “I can take care of my children’s needs.” He also plans to invest in some farm improvements.
“Cocoa farmers deserve to earn a decent living just like anyone else,” said Anne Marie Yao, West Africa Regional Cocoa Manager for Fairtrade Africa. “The additional funds going into the pockets of these farmers are the tangible result of people choosing Fairtrade chocolate. It makes a big difference.”
In addition to the Fairtrade Minimum Price, certified cooperatives also receive the non-negotiable Fairtrade Premium of $240 per tonne, which was also increased by 20 percent as of 1 October. Each cooperative will democratically decide at their annual General Assembly how to invest their Premium in their businesses and communities. The Fairtrade Premium earned on Q4 sales is estimated at more than $15.3 million.
About two-thirds of the world’s cocoa is grown by smallholder farmers in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. More than 190,000 Ivorian cocoa farmers are members of Fairtrade certified cooperatives.
The Ivorian and Ghanaian governments announced last year their own mandatory Living Income Differential of $400 per tonne to ensure that all farmers receive a higher minimum farm gate price. This should take effect in October 2020.
At the same time, Fairtrade is working with chocolate companies and retailers to test various interventions that impact price, income diversification and other components of a holistic strategy to enable cocoa farmers to earn a living income.
“The additional money that farmers are receiving as the result of the Fairtrade Minimum Price is a step in the right direction, as is the government’s Living Income Differential for all cocoa farmers starting in October 2020,” said Jon Walker, Fairtrade International’s senior advisor for cocoa. “However, many cocoa farming households will still not be earning a living income even with these higher prices. That’s why Fairtrade is working with cooperatives, their commercial partners and governments to test what factors work in enabling farmers to actually achieve a living income. This includes price but also income diversification and cost efficiency, for example. It’s essential for chocolate industry players to continue to step up their commitments, since that’s the only way farmers will truly see a sustained impact.”
The FOB reference price (‘valeur FOB garanti’) set by the government of Côte d’Ivoire’s Conseil du Café-Cacao is 1,297,948 XOF/metric tonne, for deliveries between 1 October 2019 and 31 March 2020. Using the exchange rate valid on 30 September 2019 (1 XOF = 0.00167 USD), 1,297,948 XOF equals approximately 2,164.08 USD. Considering the new FT minimum price of 2,400 USD/metric tonne, FLOCERT set the ‘Fairtrade Minimum Price Differential’ at 235.92 USD/metric tonne. This differential applies to all deliveries from producer organizations to the first buyer as of 1 October 2019. Per the Fairtrade Standard for Cocoa, certified producer organizations must pay this differential in full to their farmer members.
The farm gate price is what farmers actually receive when selling their cocoa to a cooperative or buyer. The farm gate price set by the Conseil du Café-Cacao for the current season is 825,000 XOF/metric tonne (equivalent to 1,377.75 USD/tonne using the above exchange rate). The Fairtrade Minimum Price Differential of 235.92 USD is therefore 17 percent of the current government farm gate price of 1,377.75 USD.

Final audited sales figures for 2019 will be published by Fairtrade International later this year]

12th February 2020

New EU organic regulations, due to come into force in 2021, will limit the size of organizations, forcing small-scale farmers to restructure their cooperatives, and creating high costs when they are already struggling to make ends meet. At Biofach, the world’s largest organic fair, Fairtrade urgently calls on the European Commissioner for agriculture, Janusz Wojciechowski, to abandon these changes and instead find solutions which do not negatively impact small-scale farmers and their communities. The new EU Organic Regulation includes rules for the certification of organic farmers in a cooperative or producer group. The proposed changes will limit such groups to 1000 members, and individual farm size to five hectares. Fairtrade farmers have voiced extreme concern at the planned changes. Close to half of all Fairtrade producers also farm organically and around 100 Fairtrade small producer organizations, representing more than 400,000 smallholder farmers stand to be affected due to their size. Worldwide it will impact more than 2.6 million organic producers, according to the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL). Being able to group together in larger cooperatives or associations enables small-scale farmers to reduce costs, make joint investments and, crucially, negotiate from a position that would otherwise be beyond their reach. The proposed changes would force Fairtrade and organic certified cooperatives to split into smaller groups, taking away their right to self-determination and increasing their costs and paperwork. Moreover, it risks making them into weaker entities that will struggle to compete and survive in global supply chains. The regulation will also require producer organizations who export or process their product (for example coffee cooperatives who roast and export their own coffee), to set up a separate entity for this purpose. This again creates additional costs and burden for producers, and will prevent many of them from moving up the value chain, which is widely recognized as a crucial way for smallholders to make their own way out of poverty. For Abel Fernandez, manager of Fairtrade and organic certified producer organization CONACADO in the Dominican Republic, the proposed changes are disastrous. CONACADO brings together more than 150 cocoa cooperatives, representing more than 10,000 small-scale farmers. “This EU regulation is against rural development and against international cooperation. It limits opportunities for disadvantaged groups and for small producers like our members to grow. It also has the potential to damage, or even destroy existing businesses like ours, as we will not be able to stem the additional costs and red tape.” Fairtrade International CEO, Dario Soto Abril says: “The new organic regulation is completely at odds with the EU’s self-proclaimed commitment to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals of ending poverty and promoting sustainable production and consumption. It risks making organic certification too costly and complicated for small-scale farmers, shutting them out of European markets and the sales they need to feed their families. Fairtrade urgently calls on Commissioner Wojciechowski to abandon these changes and instead find solutions which work for the millions of people who depend on small-scale organic farming for their livelihoods.” While Fairtrade recognizes the challenges of certifying large groups, the way forward must be to develop stronger assurance systems that can be adapted to different groups sizes, rather than small-scale farmers having to suffer due to the current capabilities of organic assurance bodies. Together with the international organic movement, Fairtrade and its member organizations are seeking urgent discussions with the Agriculture Ministries of EU Member States to find workable solutions for small-scale farmers and their families.

END ####################### Rekindling Interest in African Vegetables with Fairtrade Vegetables consumed in Eastern Africa include familiar names – carrots, kale and cabbage – but these are historically not part of the continent’s diet. Western favorites have at times overshadowed the region’s gloriously-named indigenous vegetables, including cowpea leaves, spider plant and slenderleaf. These greens are part of Africa’s heritage and are thought to pack a potent punch, with medicinal, immune-boosting and nutritional properties. They are better suited to growing in the local soil, have little need for fertilisers or pesticides, and are more resilient to the ravages of climate change. The traditional, leafy vegetables have, in the past, been looked down on; sometimes considered old-fashioned and as ‘poor man’s food’.  Now the plants, with their high levels of roughage, zinc, iron, calcium, manganese and Vitamin A, are seen as a way of building food security, as well as a chance to celebrate a rich cultural tradition. For these reasons, there has been a resurgence in the vegetables’ popularity. A recent report from Fairtrade Africa and Christian Aid highlighted the potential demand for Fairtrade certified traditional vegetables in the Kenyan market. Fairtrade International recently established the first Fairtrade prices for indigenous African vegetables and it’s hoped this will be an opportunity to protect and rekindle interest in these plants, further boosting their reputation and consumption, first in Kenya, and then other countries in the region. The announcement forms part of Fairtrade International’s strategy to increase the trade in Fairtrade goods within the emerging markets of Africa, Latin America and Asia; all thought to have great potential for sales. The FAIRTRADE Mark can be increasingly found on produce that is grown and consumed within these regions, as well as on produce which is exported to Europe, North America and regions. These new prices will help open up the Kenyan market for Fairtrade farmers there – a model the Fairtrade movement hopes to see with more regularity as India, South Africa and other countries increase their sales. There are also nascent Fairtrade movements in Brazil, Argentina, India and The Philippines. Those who grow traditional vegetables tend to be poor and disadvantaged women, often farming less than half a hectare, in vulnerable communities, and this price mechanism will benefit them, increasing their income and their role within their farming groups. There is growing demand in Nairobi from health-conscious consumers for specialized restaurants that serve healthy, ethnic foods. African leafy vegetables are perfect ingredients for this market. AMAICA<>, a small but significant restaurant chain, buys its cowpea leaves, spider plant and slenderleaf from groups of women growers and is interested in working with Fairtrade to help certify these groups. Certification will empower the women and ensure a fair price for their work. AMAICA will also be certified as a trader and become the first in the region to serve Fairtrade certified meals. “AMAICA is pleased to be at the forefront of promoting these vegetables which are so nutritious and so much at the heart of African tradition,” explains Pamela Muyeshi. “We are delighted to be working with Fairtrade in securing a guaranteed fair price for the women who grow them.” AMAICA distributes the vegetables to its eateries in Nairobi, including its new outlet at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, where they are used in various dishes. The restaurant chain has built a reputation as a location for authentic, traditional meals and other branches will soon be opened outside the capital. Other restaurant chains are expected to follow AMAICA’s lead and serve the Fairtrade greens. The AMAICA group, together with six other restaurants, are estimated to use more than 30,000kg of traditional vegetables every month. Frank Olok of Fairtrade Africa, the Fairtrade producer network for Africa and the Middle East, says the new vegetable prices are significant for Fairtrade sales within Kenya. “This will go a long way to increase and diversify market opportunities for Fairtrade Africa members, by promoting south-to-south markets,” he says. “We expect more producers to start selling their traditional African vegetables on Fairtrade terms.” The first National Fairtrade Organisation in a producer country was set up in South Africa five years ago. South Africa is currently the fastest growing Fairtrade market. Fairtrade Marketing Organisation of East Africa (FMOEA) is the second organization to launch on the continent. It opened its doors in May 2013 and currently promotes Fairtrade products in Kenya. It will be targeting other countries in eastern Africa in the future. Fairtrade is thought to be effective in parts of the world where the inequalities within a society are obvious for local consumers to see. It can also be a real boost to farmers to see their produce for sale locally, bearing the FAIRTRADE Mark. “Fairtrade certified producers in Africa are keen to expand these markets for Fairtrade products,” adds Frank. “We enthusiastically welcome south-to-south trade.” ****** HAPPY HOLIDAYS SPREAD THE CHEER! As the year comes to an end, we at Fairtrade Africa, wish you blessings of warm and good cheer this holiday season.  It is also that time of the year where we pass our utmost gratitude for the support you have accorded us so far. This year, 2014, has been a special year for us; we wish to thank our donors, project partners, members, Fairtrade campaigners and supporters worldwide for supporting us live our mission. We started out by laying out our strategic objectives, in February, which will guide us through to the end of 2015. Find more details on our strategic focus here. In May, we set up a Ways of Working workshop, dubbed ‘the WoW workshop’, whose goal was to achieve a better understanding of the architecture of our work within the Fairtrade system and accompanying interrelationships. We hosted the Programmatic Approach Reference Group in October. We see a promising future for Fairtrade, as a system, as we strive to achieve a more coherent and strategically aligned program delivery. This1.Karibu was also the year of producer services integration from Fairtrade International to Fairtrade Africa. We continue to be committed to this, despite the challenges, and are fully aware that the success of Fairtrade in Africa depends on successful integration. Amidst the scare of Ebola, we have sensitized our staff through training and we hope that the New Year will be Ebola free.  Finally, we welcome your collaboration with us as we seek to unlock the power of farmers and workers in Africa. Let us charter newer avenues of partnerships as Fairtrade Africa celebrates its tenth year next year. Buy Fairtrade! Talk Fairtrade! And show your love for African farmers and workers. Nyagoy Nyong’o Executive Director, Fairtrade Africa  Cheers to a new year and another chance for us to get it right. ~Oprah Winfrey ******** Fairtrade Farmers Call for Climate Action: Statement by the Fairtrade Producer Networks on the Occasion of COP20 One year ahead of the meeting in Paris, where nations will gather to agree on a new international climate change treaty, the twentieth United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP20) in Lima from 1-12 December 2014 will play a fundamental role in defining the future of our planet. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently completed its fifth assessment report, produced by hundreds of scientists around the world. The report removes any doubt on human responsibility for global warming and highlights the urgency of substantially reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to keep global warming below the critical 2 °C level. Civil society also united for an unprecedented protest in New York on the eve of the UN climate Summit in September. Members of Fairtrade Producer Network for Latin America and the Caribbean (CLAC) were among the over 400,000 participants. Thousands more took part in solidarity events in 162 countries. Civil society and the scientific community are making a clear call to governments to reach ambitious mitigation commitments by all countries according to their responsibilities and according to their respective capabilities. A collective decision is needed to end the era of fossil fuels and begin the new era of renewable energies and sustainable development. Small farmers and rural workers are among the groups most affected by the devastating impacts of climate change; however, their voice is not being heard in the negotiations. In response, the CLAC, on behalf of the three Fairtrade Producer networks representing more than 1.4 million farmers and rural workers fighting for a fairer trade worldwide, will be advocating at the COP20 in Lima for the interests of vulnerable and marginalized communities. According to Fairtrade producers in the Latin America region, climate change is negatively affecting their crops and beekeeping at several stages of the production cycle. From Mexico to Chile, extreme weather events are affecting all crops and livestock, disrupting the delicate ecological balance needed to ensure food security of farm families, rural communities and urban consumers. These impacts are also being experienced by small producers in Asia and the Pacific, Africa and the Middle East The three Fairtrade Producer Networks, Fairtrade Africa, NAPP, and CLAC together express the urgent need for action to identify and implement adaptation and mitigation measures to prevent the negative impacts of climate change. We need to influence and participate in formulating and implementing national and global policies to ensure that the resources required for adaptation are mobilized, as part of government’s strategies and policies. Through Fairtrade, producers are empowered to combat poverty, strengthen their position and take more control over their lives. However, climate change threatens to erode the benefits of these efforts, leaving the “playing field” even more unfair and unbalanced. Although Fairtrade provides great support, much more is needed to help smallholder farmers face these challenges and be able to continue to feed the world. There is an immediate urgent need to increase resilience to climate change and access more funding opportunities for climate change adaptation. Fairtrade producers urge governments and international actors involved in the agricultural sector to work together towards achieving food security and sovereignty for the regional and global population. Development based solely on unlimited growth of production and consumption is unsustainable, for both people and planet. For more details on COP20 please visit the conference website. Read more on our: COP20 – Fairtrade Climate Change fact sheet and COP20 – Fairtrade adaptation case studies ****** Who’s got the power? New study confirms imbalances in agricultural supply chains Brussels, 18 November 2014. Have you ever wondered how come those local apples in season remain more expensive than bananas all year long? Why do poor farmers get poorer just as the international price of their products rise non-stop? Why is environmental damage increasing even as large companies prove they are implementing sustainability programmes? With city dwellers increasing and rural population dwindling, who will produce the food the hungry urbanites will demand? The new study opens the door to the answers. “Who’s got the power? Tackling imbalances in agricultural supply chains”, released today in Brussels by the Fair Trade movement[1] reveals how the growing integration –and concentration of power- in the supply chain of agricultural products is having a serious effect not only on producers far away from the supermarket shelves, but all along the supply chain, the environment and onto the choices available to consumers. Unfair trading practices (UTPs)[2] appear, and they are not accidental but structural. Olivier De Schutter, co-chair of the International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems and former UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, says in the foreword to the study that “the need to improve the governance of food systems, in order to avoid instances of excessive domination by a small number of major agrifood companies, is hardly ever referred to in international summits that seek to provide answers to the challenges of hunger and malnutrition. This report helps to fill that gap”. The study identifies common patterns of concentration involving the main elements of the supply chain, the one exerting pressure on the other all the way down to the producers. The more these elements are integrated with one another, the stronger is the pressure exerted onto the next link in the supply chain:

  1. Consumers
  2. Retailers (supermarket chains)
  3. Branded products manufacturers
  4. Traders of produce
  5. Processors/Refiners
  6. Producers/Farmers
  7. Input producers (seeds, fertilizers, etc.)

In sheer size, the Consumers (7 billion) and the Producers/Farmers (2.5 billion) are by far the most numerous. However, most of the value share of the transaction (up to 86%) stays with numbers two to five. But trying to present the problem as one between consumers on one side, and farmers and workers on the other, is meaningless. The degradation of the trading and living conditions of farmers and workers, whether inside or outside Europe, creates important risks of unavailability and unaffordability of products for consumers in the midterm, reducing their welfare in the end. Addressing concretely the global nature of the problem and its consequences, the study emits no less than 16 practical recommendations to policy-makers, businesses and workers all over the world. The European Union has a clear responsibility to prevent and punish UTPs, considering the superior purchase power of its 550 million inhabitants, as well as the numerous trade agreements it has with produce exporting countries. Transactions do not occur in a legal vacuum but national legislation needs to be adapted to counter the power concentration trend, and it is clear that no solution will be found in isolation, which is why the study includes action proposals to all seven links of the supply chain as well as to multilateral instances such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In order to address and resolve the issues the study recommends actions to adopt a comprehensive strategy based on:

  • A vision of consumer welfare that goes beyond purchasing power and recalls its inherent link with farmers’ and workers’ welfare.
  • Measures to rebalance business power in agricultural chains in the short term, currently the law of the strongest has the upper hand.
  • Mechanisms to enhance transparency in agricultural chains so that stakeholders can better identify the risks of abuse of buyer power and unfair trading practices.
  • A renewed European competition policy framework capable of better regulating such abuses.
  • Enforcement mechanisms to stop Unfair Trading Practices (UTPs) within food supply chains serving the EU market, with authorities able to investigate claims and punish abuses.
  • Initiatives to promote and widely spread fair trading practices in the mid to long run.

*END* Notes to Editors: a)      The presentation and debate of the findings of the report is scheduled for 18 November 2014 at 12.30 at the European Parliament, please consult details at: b)      Please find attached and via the following links the Abstract and the Full versions of the study by BASIC (Bureau d’Analyse Sociétale pour une Information Citoyenne) titled “Who’s got the power? Tackling imbalances in agricultural supply chains”, November 2014. Available at c)       To book interviews with the authors of the report or the experts from the commissioning organizations, please contact Peter Möhringer at, mobile: +32 485 76 23 81). d)      For background information about the campaigns against UTPs organized by the Fair Trade movement members, please see compilation in PDF attached. e)      For more information about the organizations commissioning this study, please follow these links: Fairtrade International; World Fair Trade Organization; Fair Trade Advocacy Office; Traidcraft; Plate-forme pour le Commerce Equitable; Fair Trade Germany ***** Fairtrade response to Guardian article on “Fair Trade Scandal” Six in ten of all farmers and workers in Fairtrade are now in Africa. Increasing their market access on Fairtrade terms is the challenge now. In response to an article on Guardian Global Development, which reproduced an extract from the book “Fair Trade Scandal”, Barbara Crowther, Fairtrade Foundation’s Director of Policy & Public Affairs, said: “The Fairtrade system welcomes constructive debate, as we seek to continually strengthen our system and approach. It is a reality the in many of the commodities where Fairtrade operates – such as coffee and bananas – Latin America has traditionally dominated market access. Overcoming Africa’s historic exclusion from world trade markets is a long and slow process, but one we are actively engaged with. Fairtrade International’s response to Mr Syllah’s book can be found here: “By focusing on figures from 2009, the article does not fully capture the changes in Fairtrade in Africa over the last five years. For example in 2012, the number of Fairtrade certified producer organisations in Africa grew by 23%, and six in ten of all farmers and workers in Fairtrade are now in Africa. Increasing their market access on Fairtrade terms is the challenge now. Fairtrade is working to boost the productivity and sales for African co-operatives in the commodities where they have a competitive advantage, such as with cocoa growers in Cote d’Ivoire or coffee growers in Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo. Since 2005,  Fairtrade Africa has worked to strengthen the position of farmers and workers, and to contribute to greater sustainable development in Africa, and we are working with businesses to encourage them to do more to boost the volumes that are sourced from African producers. Producers and traders across Africa are also now engaged in establishing Africa-Africa Fairtrade supply chains, starting in South Africa and the Kenya & East African markets. “Meanwhile it is overly simplistic to suggest geography alone determines wealth or poverty as we all know there are huge disparities of wealth in many Latin American countries, as there are in many African ones too. In Colombia, for example, a Fairtrade workers’ foundation made up of 15 certified farms has used its Fairtrade premiums to build a school because children in their rural villages were having to be taught under trees and in an old disused pigsty. That they have done so through better terms of trade rather than reliance on traditional aid, is something they, and we, can celebrate.” ENDS Happy Valentine’s Day – Saying it with Fairtrade Red Roses 13 February 2014, Nairobi Kenya: Every year millions of people say “I love you” with red roses. For the more conscious buyer, the most beautiful way to say this is with Fairtrade flowers produced by Fairtrade certified farms. Fairtrade Africa and its members work hard to ensure that these beautiful flowers benefit the workers (hired labour) as required in the Fairtrade Hired Labour Standards. You can download the Standard for Hired Labour from here It is, therefore, important that we respond to an article that appears in the Daily Mirror today, on the eve of Valentine’s Day 2014, that posts an incorrect picture on the rights and benefits earned by workers at one of our members’ farm, a highly recognised and committed Fairtade certified flower farm, since 2006, in Kenya namely Finlays Horticulture. On the matter of the female worker earning 4,255 Kenyan shillings – about £30 per month, as Fairtrade, we follow ILO Conventions 100 on equal remuneration and 111 on discrimination as well as ILO Convention 110 in the case of plantations. All workers must work under fair conditions of employment. The company must pay wages in line with or exceeding national laws and agreements on minimum wages or the regional average. Conditions of employment and in particular salaries are in line with or exceed sector CBA regulations, the regional average and official minimum wages for similar occupations. Furthermore, we quote Finlays response that “The pay slips that the journalist were shown, that they have now shared with us, do not come from Finlays Horticulture although the Basic Pay of Ksh 6949.00 and Housing allowance of Ksh 2,000.00 are the rate that our lowest paid worker receives. The article then bases its wage comparisons on the net pay shown on the pay slip of Ksh 4,255.00; this is after the deduction of Ksh 3993.12 to a SACCO a voluntary saving and loan scheme that the worker would have asked us to pay. True disposable income is Ksh 8218.12 a month (£57.43).” In the article, the journalist claims that the workers are expected to pick 8,000 roses an hour. Finlays have responded that this is not only wrong but probably physically impossible saying, “We would expect a skilled picker to handle between 100 and 150 per hour. On a typical day during the two harvesting periods a worker would normally fill 8 to 10 buckets with 80 stems not the 40 buckets at 200 per stem quoted. In between harvesting workers do other crop husbandry tasks.” There are further claims made in the article such as comments about the working day which are incorrect since as per the Fairtrade standard working hours and overtime must comply with applicable law and industry standards. Workers are not required to work in excess of 48 hours per week on a regular basis. Also the article talks about the housing the workers live in. “Finlays Horticulture does not provide housing but pays a housing allowance of Ksh 2,000 per month. In Naivasha, Kshs 2,000/= is sufficient to pay for a house with electricity.” responded Finlays. The worker is quoted as saying “I need proper medical help but I cannot afford a doctor“. It is a Fairtrade minimum requirement that workers are provided with free and regular medical care and advice, which is offered at the workplace at fixed times during working hours. According to Finlays, their farms have health clinics where trained nurses will see workers free of charge. If a worker needs to see a doctor they can use the Finlays run hospital, that is close to the farms and see a doctor for 40Kshs. This is a subsidised rate available to all employees and their dependants. As a comparison the rate in Naivasha town would be Ksh 500. Clearly the benefits of buying Fairtrade flowers for your beloved ones at Valentine’s or indeed everyday of the year are clear. We thank you for your continued support and together we will continue to pursue the continuous ethical and sustainable development of Africa for the benefit of its workers and farmers. *****